Gastric cancer

Gastric cancer

Gastric cancer is a type of cancer that eats away at the stomach , an organ in the abdominal cavity of people who became one part of the digestive system . This disease can diidap by people of all ages , although the majority of sufferers aged 55 years and over .

Type of stomach cancer the most common is adenocarcinoma, which is a condition when cancer attacks the cells in the lining of the stomach that produces fluids like mucus (mucus). Besides adenocarcinoma, there are also some other types of gastric cancer although rarely in people with this disease. Among these species:

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a cancer that attacks the connective tissue or muscles of the abdominal wall.
Gastric lymphoma, a cancer that attacks the lymphatic network or networks that help fight infection.
Carcinoid, a cancer that attacks the cells that produce hormones in the stomach.
Symptoms of gastric cancer
Here are some of the symptoms that can be felt with gastric cancer at an early stage:
  • Bloating and frequent belching
  • Heartburn or stomach pain
  • Pain in the sternum
  • Early satiety during meals
  • Nausea
  • Gag
  • Difficulty in swallowing food
  • Indigestion is often recurrent
Some of the symptoms of stomach cancer at the more severe stages are:
  • Vomiting blood
  • Anemia
  • Jaundice
  • Loss of appetite
  • Black stools or blood in the stool are
  • The body feels tired
  • Weight loss
  • Swelling in the abdomen
The development or growth of cancer symptoms in patients may vary. There is growing slowly, medium, or fast. Symptoms of gastric cancer at an early stage is usually difficult to identify because it is similar to the symptoms of other gastric conditions, eg gastric ulcer. Because it takes a doctor's examination to confirm the diagnosis. Immediately consult you if you feel the symptoms above.

The cause of gastric cancer
The cause of gastric cancer still can not be known with certainty. But in general, cancer occurs when cells in certain parts of the stomach grow out of control. As a result of the excessive growth of cells that had had a normal nature to help the body to function properly, it becomes accumulated into tumor-destructive and can spread to other body parts.

Some factors that may increase a person's risk of stomach cancer are:
  • Smoke. Hazardous substances contained in cigarettes can damage the stomach wall. Therefore a smoker will have twice the risk of stomach cancer than those who never smoked.
  • Food. Too much eating salami, salt, anchovies, pickled vegetables, and foods containing aflatoxin. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of eating fruits and vegetables.
  • Aged 55 and older and male gender.
  • Pylori bacterial infection. This bacterium is the cause of gastric diseases such as indigestion, peptic ulcers, and inflammation of the stomach lining.
  • Suffering from gastric infection in a long time.
  • Suffering from pernicious anemia. This condition occurs when a person is deficient in vitamin B12.
  • Suffer from a condition that causes the appearance of polyps in the stomach.
  • Having a close relative of the diseased gastric cancer.
  • Had undergone surgery on the stomach.
  • Suffering from other types of cancer. Patients with lymphoma or cancer of the white blood cells, cancer of the esophagus or esophageal cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and lung cancer have a higher risk of gastric cancer.
Stages of development of gastric cancer
There are four steps that determine the severity of gastric cancer, including:
  • Stage 1. At this stage the cancer has begun to grow in the tissue lining the stomach or has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage 2. At this stage the spread of cancer in the lymph nodes more widespread, and has spread deeper into the muscle layer of the stomach wall.
  • Stage 3. At this point all of the stomach lining had gnawed cancer or many small cancerous growth that spread to many lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4. This is the most severe levels of gastric cancer. At this stage the cancer has spread even further and invade other organs.
Determining the severity of gastric cancer can be done through diagnosis. It is useful in helping physicians to provide appropriate treatment.

Diagnosis of gastric cancer

To determine whether a patient is suffering from stomach cancer, the doctor will first ask the symptoms are felt. In addition, the doctor will ask whether the patient has a specific condition that can increase the risk of gastric cancer or if she has a close family colon cancer.

After the explanation of the patients had, the doctor can perform a simple inspection by checking the patient's abdomen to see any swelling around the stomach.

To determine whether a person had stomach cancer, doctors will conduct further tests, such as:
  • Fecal examination for the presence of blood.
  • Blood tests.
  • Endoscopy. This check is performed by inserting a small-sized special tools such as a hose into the stomach via the esophagus. The instrument is equipped this camera can help doctors see their cancer. Through endoscopy, the doctor can also take samples of stomach tissue and then examined in a laboratory.
  • X-ray examination. In cases of gastric cancer, X-ray checks will be combined with a liquid containing barium substance. Substances that must be swallowed by the patient will help the X-rays to produce an image on a monitor. During the 6 hours prior to the examination procedure, patients are not allowed to consume food or drinks, and inspection usually lasts for 15 minutes. Side effects that may be perceived patient after performing these checks are nausea and constipation.
  • CT scan. This examination can help doctors determine how far the development of cancer, whether the cancer is only found in the stomach or has spread to other organs. The scan that uses a series of X-rays and computer assistance can produce detailed images of the body.
  • Laparoscopic surgery. The examination procedure is done by inserting a tool camera called a laparoscope through a small incision made by the doctor in the abdomen at the bottom. Of course, in this procedure the patient should be sedated first. Laparoscopic surgery aims to see the state of the hull in more detail. Through this examination, the doctor can determine whether gastric cancer has spread, especially into the peritoneal or abdominal cavity lining.
  • USG. Examination using ultrasound wave was intended to see whether the gastric cancer has invaded the liver.
Treatment of gastric cancer
The main goal of treatment of gastric cancer is cure the disease once and for all to the roots. The method used usually depends on the severity of the disease and the patient's general health condition. In cases of gastric cancer can not be cured, treatment is usually aimed at making the patient as comfortable as possible by reducing the symptoms felt. It is estimated that up to 30 percent of patients with gastric cancer can be treated to recover. Here are the three main types of treatment in cases of gastric cancer.

Radiotherapy
The purpose of radiotherapy is to kill cancer cells. In radiotherapy, a treatment method performed by using the energy emitted radiation. Usually the method of radiotherapy applied to the high-stage gastric cancer cases with symptoms of bleeding.

Before surgery, radiotherapy can be done to reduce tumor size stomach so more easily removed. While radiotherapy that followed aimed at killing cancer cells that may still remain, as well as preventing the cancer growing back.

Even so, there are some side effects of radiotherapy that also must be considered, including:

  • Irritation or blackish color of the skin around the treated area.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Tired.
  • Nausea.
  • Gag.
  • Indigestion.
Implementation of radiotherapy usually done regularly every week. In one week, usually there are five sessions of treatment for five days and each session lasts for a few minutes. Deadline radiotherapy treatment depends on the purpose and severity. For example, to relieve symptoms in cases of gastric cancer high stage generally lasts up to two weeks. Meanwhile, to prevent the cancer coming back, usually last up to five weeks.

chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a way to kill cancer cells through the administration of a number of drugs. These drugs can be taken in tablet form, infusion, or a combination of both.

In gastric cancer, chemotherapy is performed before surgery usually aims to shrink the tumor, relieve symptoms felt by the patient, or slow the spread of cancer. Chemotherapy can also be given postoperatively to prevent cancer from coming back.

Just as radiotherapy, chemotherapy execution time is divided into several sessions. There are only lasts for three weeks or a few months with a certain constant dosing.

Some side effects of chemotherapy are:
  • Nausea.
  • Gag.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Body feels tired.
  • Anemia.
  • Hair loss.
  • Nerve damage.
Usually these side effects will go away after chemotherapy treatment ended. The side effects of chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer each can vary depending on the patient's own reaction to the treatment, the number of treatment sessions were conducted, and the type of chemotherapy drug that is given.

Operation
The type of surgery performed gastric cancer treatment depends on the severity of the spread of the cancer itself. For example, if the cancer is diagnosed in the early stages and emerging in the stomach wall, then a procedure called endoscopic resection can be performed.

Through this procedure the doctor does not need to dissect the patient and simply insert the endoscope instrument to the stomach through the mouth and esophagus. By means of a specially equipped this camera, the doctor may remove the cancer of the lining of the stomach and leaving healthy tissue.

The surgical procedure is still included in the treatment of lower stage gastric cancer is a partial gastrectomy. However, in this procedure, the doctor will perform surgery on the patient's abdomen to remove the infected gastric cancer. Partial gastrectomy generally done if the cancer is still in the hull bottom and has not spread to the middle and upper.

Farther than the partial gastrectomy was total gastrectomy. This procedure is done if the cancer has spread to the middle and upper stomach. In this case the doctor will be forced to remove the entire hull patient and directly connects the small intestine to the end of the esophagus.

Removal of lymph nodes were thought to have been subverted by cancer will also be conducted. This procedure is also useful for preventing cancer recurrence.

risks of surgery
Just like other methods of treatment of gastric cancer, surgery can also cause a risk. Some of them are:
  • Bleeding.
  • Indigestion.
  • Infection.
Prevention of gastric cancer
To reduce risk of gastric cancer, do some healthy steps below.
  • Reduce consumption of salt and foods processed smoked.
  • Expand to eat vegetables and fruits.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Do not ignore and treat until complete if you are suffering from an infection of the stomach.
  • Be careful and always obey the rules of physicians in using aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs non-steroidal.
Opportunities cured with gastric cancer
Opportunities cured of stomach cancer depends on several factors, such as the patient's general health condition, age of the patient, and how high or how far the severity of gastric cancer has spread when first diagnosed.

Because the symptoms of gastric cancer is almost the same with some other gastric problems, so generally people do not realize until gastric cancer is already at high stage when diagnosed. According to the study, as many as fifteen percent of patients with gastric cancer may still be alive at least the next five years after diagnosis, and about eleven percent were diagnosed still alive at least the next ten years.

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