Chickenpox


Chickenpox
Pox, known medically as varicella , commonly suffered by children under the age of 10 years and more rarely affects adults . Almost all adults who have ever suffered from chickenpox will not be infected again .

Diseases caused by the varicella zoster virus is generally characterized by the appearance of a skin rash that becomes the main symptoms of chicken pox. The rash will turn into fluid-filled red nodule that itch that will then dry out, become raw, and chipped within 7-14 days. The parts of the body usually covered with smallpox pustule is the face, behind the ears, scalp, arms and legs.

Treatment and Complications of Chickenpox
Chicken pox has no special handling steps. The purpose of treatment is to reduce symptoms. Two types of drugs commonly used to treat smallpox is paracetamol to reduce fever and calamine lotion or talcum powder to reduce the itching of the skin.
Not all children are infected with chickenpox can heal on its own without medical treatment. Unusual symptoms that you should be aware of is an infection that occurs in a pimple on the skin or if your child had chest pain and difficulty breathing. Immediately call your doctor if your child's condition chickenpox more serious.
The condition of people with adult chickenpox tend to be more severe and the risk of complications. Antidote viruses (antivirals) may be effective for treating patients with adult chickenpox when given in the early stages of the disease.
Chickenpox in pregnant women, newborns, and people with weakened immune systems are also more susceptible to serious complications. They should seek medical help immediately if exposed to the virus or have any symptoms.

Preventive Measures Chickenpox
Chickenpox can be prevented by vaccination. In Indonesia alone, chicken pox does not include the list of mandatory immunization for children, but still recommended.
Transmission of measles are also generally very easy and quick to happen. The first deployment of prevention measures that can be done is to isolate people with chickenpox from public places such as work or school until the rash dry up and become scabs.
The chickenpox virus most easily transmitted to 1-2 days before the rash appears until next week, when the rash has dried and become scabs.

Symptoms of Chicken Pox
Common symptoms of chickenpox are most easily detected is a red rash that can spread throughout the body. But there are some other symptoms that may be experienced before the appearance of the rash, among others:
  • Fever.
  • Nausea to be no appetite.
  • Headache.
  • Fatigue.
  • Pain or muscle pain.
The symptoms above occur more severe in adult patients compared to patients with children. Itchy rash will appear after the symptoms above. Not all people with chickenpox rash experiencing the same symptoms. There is only experience it at some particular parts of the body (such as the scalp, face, chest, back, abdomen, or leg) and there are all over the body even in the mouth and ear and in the buttocks area. The rash will usually go through three stages of change, namely:
  • Rash become small bumps that itch.
  • Half a day later, bumps into nodules containing liquid which is very itchy.
  • After 1-2 days, nodule dry up and become scabs that will peel yourself.
But there are some sufferers who experience more severe chickenpox. Contact your doctor immediately if any unusual symptoms that arise, for example:
  • Chest pain.
  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • The skin around the pimple becomes red and sore as a result of infection.
  • Symptoms of dehydration such as dry mouth and infrequent urination.
Cause Chicken Pox
Chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus can be transmitted very easily and quickly. Transmission can be through direct contact with a person or via spark sneeze or cough sufferers. You even considered exposed to the chickenpox virus if it has come into direct contact or have a room with a person for 15 minutes.

Moments that should be avoided, especially 2-3 days before the rash appears until nodule dry up and become scabs (about a week after the appearance of the rash).

Additionally, your risk for contracting this disease will also increase if you:
  • Have not had chickenpox.
  • Have not received the chickenpox vaccine.
  • Have a weakened immune system.
  • Working in public places such as schools or hospitals.
People with chickenpox usually do not need to undergo a test or a medical examination for the diagnosis process. You are most likely suffering from chickenpox if you are experiencing major symptoms, such as slight fever followed by the appearance of a rash. Red spots due to chicken pox also have significant texture that is easily recognizable.

Call your doctor if you are in doubt or have special conditions, for example:
  • It comes in contact with a person with chickenpox or you experience symptoms of chickenpox and you have a decreased immune system, are pregnant, or have a baby aged under one month.
  • Your contract chickenpox during breastfeeding. The doctor will examine and decide whether you are still allowed to breastfeed or not.
Doctors also can conduct a simple blood test to make sure your symptoms and see if you have immunity to chickenpox or the chickenpox virus
antibodies in the body indicate that you are protected from the disease. But if you do not have it, the doctor will monitor the development of the condition.

Treatment of Chicken Pox
Chicken pox has no specific treatment steps and will usually heal itself. The purpose of treatment is to reduce symptoms that can be done with a few simple steps such as:
  • Many drink and avoid foods that can make the mouth sore, especially salty foods. Prevention of dehydration is important for people with chickenpox, especially children. Ice can also be given to relieve pain or itching due to nodule chickenpox in the mouth.
  • Do not scratch nodule chickenpox as this may increase the risk of infection and leave scars. Wrap your hands with gloves or socks while sleeping also can prevent scratching, especially in children. You can also apply the lotion, calamine powder, or taking chlorphenamine (suitable drunk children aged one year or more).
  • Wear clothing made from soft, like cotton, and loose for a more severe skin irritation due to nodules chickenpox can be prevented.
  • Use painkillers or analgesics if necessary. Analgesics such as paracetamol can be consumed by sufferers who experience pain and fever. But you should contact your doctor first if your child is under the age of three months.
Do not give aspirin to children who are suffering from chicken pox. Aspirin is given to people with chickenpox children can cause Reye's syndrome. The disease causes serious damage to the brain and heart. Therefore, never give aspirin to your child who contract chickenpox or show symptoms.

But not all people with chickenpox can recover without medical treatment. There are some categories of people are susceptible to complications from the disease and thus require more intensive treatment.
One of the mitigating measures is an antiviral drug acyclovir . Group of people with chickenpox who may need include pregnant women , newborns , and people with decreased immune systems , such as people with cancer or diabetes . Aciclovir may relieve symptoms of chickenpox when given in brackets within 24 hours after the rash appears .

In addition to antiviral drugs , the doctor also can advise immunoglobulin therapy , the treatment with antibodies taken from healthy people. In this therapy , the varicella - zoster immunoglobulin ( VZIG ) which contains antibodies to the chickenpox virus will be given by infusion .

Especially for pregnant women , the immunoglobulin has an additional function for this antibody may also reduce the risk of transmission of chickenpox in babies in the womb .

Complications of Chickenpox
Chickenpox including rarely lead to complications, especially in children who are usually healthy. If anything, a common complication in people with children is a bacterial infection that attacks the nodule with an indication of the form of the skin around the pimple reddened and sore.

While the condition of people with adult chickenpox tends to be more severe. People with chickenpox adults have a higher risk to be hospitalized. Lung problems, such as pneumonia, is one of the complications that can occur. Smoking can also increase the risk of complications in the lungs.

Pregnant women exposed to chickenpox are also more at risk of complications. If the contract chickenpox in the first seven months of pregnancy, the unborn baby at risk of being born with a low birth weight or congenital varicella syndrome. This syndrome can cause serious complications in infants, between cataracts, skin lesions, or damage to the brain as well as the hands or feet short.

Transmission of measles to the baby can also occur when the mother is infected one week before or after childbirth. If this occurs, newborns are at risk of more severe chickenpox.

In addition to infants and pregnant women, steroid drug users and people with decreased immune systems (eg, HIV or diabetes) can experience complications from chickenpox. Some of the risks that can arise is pneumonia, septicemia (blood infection) and meningitis.

Smallpox Risk of Fire (Shingles)
Varicella zoster virus may persist in the nerve cells of the body even after symptoms of chickenpox recover. At a later date, the virus has the possibility to go back and cause a fire smallpox, especially in adults, and people with immune system decreases.

Prevention of Chickenpox
Prevention of chickenpox can also be done through vaccination. Unusual chickenpox vaccine is recommended to protect people who are at risk of chickenpox serious or risky pass on a lot of people. For example, medical workers or children who live at home with parents who have a decreased immune system.

Especially for women who plan to have children, postpone your pregnancy for at least three months after receiving the chickenpox vaccine. The vaccine is also not recommended for people with decreased immune systems, such as people with cancer.

In Indonesia alone, chickenpox is not included in the list of mandatory immunization for children, but still recommended. This vaccine can be administered to children aged 12-15 months or adolescents aged 13 years and over who have never received the chickenpox vaccine.

Transmission of chicken pox is also very easy-going and can spread rapidly. The first deployment of prevention measures that can be done is to isolate people with chickenpox from public places such as schools or offices before all pustule rupture, dry, then become raw. This period usually lasts for a week after the appearance of the rash.

If you live with people with chickenpox, the transmission can be prevented by:
  • Wash your hands frequently, especially after contact with a person.
  • Wearing a mask.
  • Using liquid disinfectant to wipe objects or surfaces that may be exposed to the virus.
  • Washing clothes or sheets sufferers regularly and separately.

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