Hepatitis a, cause and manner of treatment

Hepatitis a, cause and manner of treatment

Hepatitis A is a disease that can attack the liver and is caused by a viral infection . The number of people with this disease in the world is estimated to reach 1.4 million in each year . While in Southeast Asia alone , cases of acute hepatitis A affects about 400,000 people per year with a mortality rate of up to 800 people . Most people with hepatitis A are children .

The initial symptoms that may appear include fever, nausea, vomiting, pain in joints and muscles, as well as diarrhea. When the liver has started developing, there are some other symptoms that will arise, namely dark urine, pale stools, jaundice and itching. In addition, right upper abdominal area will also be a pain, especially if it is pressed.

But not all sufferers experience symptoms of hepatitis A. Therefore, the disease is sometimes difficult to realize. Only one of 10 patients with hepatitis A under six years old who experienced jaundice. Whereas in adolescents and adults, the disease usually causes more severe symptoms and about seven out of 10 will experience jaundice.

Cause and Transmission of Hepatitis A
The cause of this disease is viral hepatitis A can be spread very easily. How the spread primarily through food or water that has been contaminated by the stool of people with hepatitis A. Some of the risk factors that can increase the spread of this virus include:
  • Poor sanitation.
  • Direct contact with sufferers.
  • Sharing needles.
  • Having sex with a person, especially anal sex.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • Working in areas related to dirt, as sewers.
Step Treatment of Hepatitis A
This disease has no special handling steps because the immune system will destroy the virus by itself. A hepatitis treatment step intended to relieve the symptoms experienced by infected. Handling includes taking reliever itching, pain, nausea and vomiting as prescribed. The liver also need to be allowed to rest, for example by not drinking and be careful with medications that can affect the liver.

The time needed to fully recover from the person with the disease is usually a few months. Sufferers who survived will have total immunity to the disease.

Risk of Complications Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A infection usually does not cause long-term liver disease ( chronic ) and are rarely fatal . However , the disease has the potential to cause liver failure , especially in those who already have heart disease before the patient is infected with hepatitis A and seniors . In addition , in some people with this infection may recur or come back again .

Ways to Prevent Hepatitis A
Because the spread primarily through consumption of contaminated things , the prevention of hepatitis A major step is to keep clean. This step can be done easily , for example, always wash your hands , avoid the consumption of raw or under cooked foods and avoiding snacks at street vendors .

In addition , the hepatitis A vaccine can prevent this disease . Especially for those who have a high risk such as people who suffer from chronic liver disease , people with hemophilia and injecting drug users .

Symptoms of Hepatitis A
The initial symptoms that can occur include dizziness , nausea , vomiting , sore throat , diarrhea , loss of appetite , fatigue and pain in muscles and joints . When you start developing your liver , there are some symptoms that will arise , namely dark urine , pale yellow -colored stools , jaundice and swelling heart ache if the right upper abdomen is pressed .

Not all people with hepatitis A will show the symptoms . Therefore , the disease is sometimes difficult to realize . The period since the entry of the virus until the symptoms of hepatitis A takes about 14-40 days . But the incubation period experienced by most people with the disease about three weeks .

People with hepatitis A in children under six years of age tend to be asymptomatic. Only one of the 10 who experienced jaundice . Whereas in adolescents and adults , the disease usually causes more severe symptoms and about seven in 10 will experience jaundice .

Cause Hepatitis A
The cause of this disease is viral hepatitis A can be spread very easily . Most cases of hepatitis A in Indonesia caused by the consumption of food that has been contaminated by the feces of patients with hepatitis A due to lack of cleanliness maintained . So it is important for us , especially children , to always wash your hands regularly and do not snack in a questionable cleanliness .

Some risk factors that can increase the spread of this virus include:
  • Poor sanitation .
  • Lack of clean water.
  • Eating raw foods .
  • Direct contact with a person , such as living in a home .
  • Wearing and sharing needles .
  • Having sex with a person , especially anal sex .
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • Working in areas related to dirt , as sewers.
Treatment of Hepatitis A
The main step diagnosis of hepatitis A is recommended blood tests. An indication that you are suffering from hepatitis A is that if your blood test showed a positive reaction to the antibodies produced by the immune system against the virus.

If positive for the disease, the doctor will check the condition of your heart through a blood test called the evaluation supporting liver function and ultrasound.

This disease has no special handling steps. Recovery depends only on the immune system to eliminate the virus by itself. Hepatitis A treatment steps aimed at easing the symptoms experienced. Measures of treatment include:
  • Get plenty of rest. People with hepatitis A will certainly experience fatigue, especially in early infection.
  • Coping with nausea and vomiting, for example by avoiding fatty foods and eating small portions. If these symptoms are not reduced, doctors usually recommend the consumption of drugs such as metoclopramide antiemetic. These drugs are available in the form of tablets, capsules, powders as well as by injection.
  • Do not consume alcohol or drugs that affect the liver so that the liver can also rest. If there are certain drugs that you should use, discuss dosage or type of medication that is safe to the doctor.
Complications Hepatitis A
Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A infection usually does not cause long-term liver disease (chronic) and are rarely fatal. But some groups such as the elderly, people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, people with decreased immune systems such as people with HIV and people who have suffered from heart disease before infection with hepatitis A are more prone to develop complications. Here is a complication that can occur:

Experiencing the Heart Failure Risk
This complication occurs when the liver function decreased dramatically. Liver failure can cause an infected experience jaundice, nausea and vomiting. Physical changes also occur, such as hair loss, easy bruising and bleeding such as nosebleeds, and the emergence buildup of fluid in the abdomen and legs. Patients with heart failure have also become more susceptible to infection.

Although rare, the risk of liver failure still have to watch out for developments pengidapnya need to continue to be monitored by a specialist heart.

Recurrence Risk of Infection
Hepatitis A infection can sometimes come back. Recurrence of hepatitis A can occur more than once after the first infection.

Experiencing the risk of cholestasis
Cholestasis usually occurs in people with hepatitis A are older. This condition can be cured by itself without special treatment. This complication occurs when fluid accumulates in the liver bile. Symptoms include weight loss, fever, jaundice that do not heal and diarrhea.

Prevention of Hepatitis A
Prevention of hepatitis A key is to keep clean. This can be done with simple steps such as:
  • Always wash your hands with soap and clean water, for example, before eating, before preparing food and after using the toilet.
  • Do not share personal items such as toothbrushes or towels.
  • Do not lend each other tableware.
  • Always cook food until cooked and boil the water to boil.
  • Avoid snacks vendors who clean less intact.
  • Avoid consumption of raw foods derived from contaminated waters, such as oysters.
Prevention of hepatitis A infection can be prevented through vaccination performed twice with an interval of 6-12 months. The vaccine is recommended for those at high risk of hepatitis A, such as people with chronic liver disease, men who have sex with men, people who use needles as users of illegal drugs and the people who work in areas related to the dirt like a sewer ,

In Indonesia's own country, the vaccine is not included in the mandatory immunization. But it has been provided and can be provided from a two-year olds to adults.

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