Brucellosis


Brucellosis is a bacterial infection from animals to humans . According to data from the WHO in 2014 , brucellosis infected more than half a million people in 100 countries every year .

Brucellosis is very rarely transmitted from human to human , but the disease can jump between humans through milk and sexual intercourse . It is rare, but brucellosis can also be transmitted through blood transfusion or transfusion of bone marrow that has been contaminated . In very rare cases , the bacteria that cause brucellosis can even spread through the air .

The bacteria that cause brucellosis emergence called Brucella. Always cover and maintain a healthy body injuries when interacting with animals, is one way to prevent transmission of brucellosis.

symptoms of Brucellosis
A symptom is something that is felt and told by the patient. Symptoms of brucellosis may appear several days or several months after a person is infected. One of the main symptoms of this condition are similar to the symptoms of the flu that last a long time. Some symptoms of brucellosis are:
  • Fever.
  • Body weight decreased.
  • Sweating at night.
  • Feel tired and weak.
  • Pain in the joints, muscles and back.
  • Headache.
  • Loss of appetite.
These symptoms can recur after subside for some time. Immediately consult a doctor if experiencing continuous fever, muscle pain, or weakness of the body that are not clear.

Causes and Risk Factors of Brucellosis
Generally, the bacteria Brucella that the cause of the disease can infect humans through animals. There are three ways of transmission of the Brucella bacteria from animals to humans:
  • Raw milk products. Humans will be infected with brucellosis when consuming food and beverages made from raw milk or eating the meat of animals infected with Brucella.
  • Air. Brucella can spread and enter the body easily through the air they breathe someone.
  • Direct contact. Bacteria in the blood, semen, the placenta of infected animals can get into a person's body through a wound he had.
Four types of Brucella bacteria that cause most cases of brucellosis in humans are:
  • Brucellosis canis, commonly spread by dogs.
  • Brucellosis melitensis, mostly found in goats and sheep.
  • Brucellosis abortus, can be transmitted through the intermediary of cattle.
  • Brucellosis suis, can be found in wild pigs.
Some things that increase a person's risk of brucellosis are:
  • Traveling to the region where the bacteria Brucella is still found.
  • Working in abattoirs or farms.
  • Eating and drinking unpasteurized milk products.
diagnosis Brucellosis
Diagnosis is a step the doctor to identify the disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. Regular checks conducted by physicians to diagnose brucellosis is testing samples of blood or bone marrow.

The purpose of the blood or bone marrow test is a check for infection and identify Brucella species of bacteria that attack the patient's body. While due diligence measures that are generally conducted by physicians to detect complications of brucellosis are:
  • CSF culture. The doctor will test a small sample of the fluid that surround the brain and spinal cord to see their infection.
  • Imaging test. The doctor will carry out X-ray imaging, CT Scan, MRI to see changes in bones and joints, and identifies inflammation of the brain or other tissues.
  • Echocardiography, this test will use sound waves to create images of the heart organ and check for signs of infection or damage to the heart.
treatment of Brucellosis
The goal of treatment brucellosis only to relieve symptoms, prevent relapses of brucellosis, as well as avoid complications. The doctor will prescribe an antibiotic for the treatment of a minimum duration of six weeks.

Usually the doctor will provide two types of antibiotics for patients with this condition. The types of antibiotics that are usually used to treat brucellosis are:
  • Tetracycline.
  • Streptomycin.
  • Doxycycline.
  • Rifampicin.
  • Gentamicin.
Complications and Prevention of Brucellosis
There are several complications that can be experienced by people with brucellosis, namely:
  • Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart wall), can damage heart valves and cause death.
  • Arthritis. Infection of the joints characterized pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints.
  • Infection and inflammation of the testicles, causing pain and swelling.
  • Central nervous system infections, including meningitis, encephalitis.
  • Swelling of the liver.
  • Miscarriage and fetal defects in pregnant women.
While some precautions to reduce the risk of brucellosis, are:
  • Avoid eating foods that are made from non-pasteurized dairy products.
  • Cook until the meat is cooked through.
  • Use gloves and cover any open wounds with bandages while interacting with animals.
  • Vaccination of animals to be free of brucellosis infection.

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